Ancient views[ edit ] Most ancient cultures, including thinkers of Ancient Greece Ancient Chinaand Ancient India lacked the concept of creativity, seeing art as a form of discovery and not creation.
It appears here with the kind permission of the publisher, F.
It is a slightly edited version of the chapter written jointly by Jim Simkin and myself for the third edition of Current Psychotherapies. The version was a complete rewriting of a version Jim did by himself for the second edition of Current Psychotherapies. The revisions I made in the version were minor and were made after Jim's death.
Overview Gestalt therapy is a phenomenological-existential therapy founded by Frederick Fritz and Laura Perls in the s. It teaches therapists and patients the phenomenological method of awareness, in which perceiving, feeling, and acting are distinguished from interpreting and reshuffling Introduction of creativity attitudes.
Explanations and interpretations are considered less reliable than what is directly perceived and felt.
Patients and therapists in Gestalt therapy dialogue, that is, communicate their phenomenological perspectives. Differences in perspectives become the focus of experimentation and continued dialogue.
The goal is for clients to become aware of what they are doing, how they are doing it, and how they can change themselves, and at the same time, to learn to accept and value themselves.
Gestalt therapy focuses more on process what is happening than content what is being discussed. The emphasis is on what is being done, thought and felt at the moment rather than on what was, might be, could be, or should be.
Basic Concepts The Phenomenological Perspective Phenomenology is a discipline that helps people stand aside from their usual way of thinking so that they can tell the difference between Introduction of creativity is actually being perceived and felt in the current situation and what is residue from the past Idhe, A Gestalt exploration respects, uses and clarifies immediate, "naive" perception "undebauched by learning" Wertheimer,p.
Gestalt therapy treats what is "subjectively" felt in the present, as well as what is "objectively" observed, as real and important data. This contrasts with approaches that treat what the patient experiences as "mere appearances" and uses interpretation to find "real meaning.
In Gestalt therapy insight is clear understanding of the structure of the situation being studied. Awareness without systematic exploration is not ordinarily sufficient to develop insight.
Therefore, Gestalt therapy uses focused awareness and experimentation to achieve insight. How one becomes aware is crucial to any phenomenological investigation. The phenomenologist studies not only personal awareness but also the awareness process itself. The patient is to learn how to become aware of awareness.
How the therapist and the patient experience their relationship is of special concern in Gestalt therapy Yontef, The Field Theory Perspective The scientific world view that underlies the Gestalt phenomenological perspective is field theory.
Field theory is a method of exploring that describes the whole field of which the event is currently a part rather than analyzing the event in terms of a class to which it belongs by its "nature" e. The field is a whole in which the parts are in immediate relationship and responsive to each other and no part is uninfluenced by what goes on elsewhere in the field.
The field replaces the notion of discrete, isolated particles. The person in his or her life space constitutes a field. In field theory no action is at a distance; that is, what has effect must touch that which is affected in time and space. Gestalt therapists work in the here and now and are sensitive to how the here and now includes residues of the past, such as body posture, habits, and beliefs.
The phenomenological field is defined by the observer and is meaningful only when one knows the frame of reference of the observer. The observer is necessary because what one sees is somewhat a function of how and when one looks. Field approaches are descriptive rather than speculative, interpretive, or classificatory.
The emphasis is on observing, describing, and explicating the exact structure of whatever is being studied. In Gestalt therapy, data unavailable to direct observation by the therapist are studied by phenomenological focusing, experimenting, reporting of participants, and dialogue Yontef, The Existential Perspective Existentialism is based on the phenomenological method.
Existential phenomenologists focus on people's existence, relations with each other, joys and suffering, etc. Most people operate in an unstated context of conventional thought that obscures or avoids acknowledging how the world is.
This is especially true of one's relations in the world and one's choices. Self-deception is the basis of inauthenticity: Gestalt therapy provides a way of being authentic and meaningfully responsible for oneself.
The existential view holds that people are endlessly remaking or discovering themselves. There is no essence of human nature to be discovered "once and for all. Dialogue The relationship between the therapist and the client is the most important aspect of psychotherapy.
Existential dialogue is an essential part of Gestalt therapy's methodology and is a manifestation of the existential perspective on relationship.Color Theory concepts and tutorial. Learn why understanding color can help your designs. This Color Theory tutorial provides a number of essays covering the various aspects of color study.
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Learn about Munsell, Itten, color mixing and color . To Whom it May Concern Sample Letters: 3 Examples Written by CEOs “To Whom It May Concern” is a letter heading that is used when you’re not sure of the exact person that you want to be writing to. Don't know what creative writing is?
Don't know what it constitutes? Then read this post, which explains it all and more.
This is a series on creative writing. Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
However, innovation is often also viewed [by whom?] as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs.
Such innovation takes place through the provision of more-effective products, processes, services, technologies, or business models that are made available to. Radio host Julie Burstein talks with creative people for a living -- and shares four lessons about how to create in the face of challenge, self-doubt and loss.
Hear insights from filmmaker Mira Nair, writer Richard Ford, sculptor . Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scientific theory, a musical composition, or a joke) or a physical object (such as an invention, a literary work, or a painting)..
Scholarly interest in creativity is found in a number of disciplines, primarily psychology, business studies, and cognitive.