A study of the basic accounting concepts and procedures underlying the organization and reporting of financial information. Topics include the accounting cycle, the preparation of financial statements, the measurement and reporting of business income, and the valuation and presentation of assets and current liabilities. Emphasis is placed on the relevance of the business and economic information generated by the accounting process and how it is used in personal and business decision making.
Nitrous acid converts amine groups on A and C to diazo groups, altering their hydrogen bonding patterns, which leads to incorrect base pairing during replication. Radiation Ultraviolet light UV non-ionizing radiation.
Two nucleotide bases in DNA— cytosine and thymine—are most vulnerable to radiation that can change their properties. UV light can induce adjacent pyrimidine bases in a DNA strand to become covalently joined as a pyrimidine dimer.
Exposure to ionizing radiation, such as gamma radiationcan result in mutation, possibly resulting in cancer or death. Classification of types[ edit ] By effect on structure[ edit ] Five types of chromosomal mutations.
Selection of disease-causing mutations, in a standard table of the genetic code of amino acids. Mutations in the structure of genes can be classified into several types. Small-scale mutations[ edit ] Small-scale mutations affect a gene in one or a few nucleotides.
If only a single nucleotide is affected, they are called point mutations. Insertions add one or more extra nucleotides into the DNA. They are usually caused by transposable elementsor errors during replication of repeating elements. Insertions in the coding region of a gene may alter splicing of the mRNA splice site mutationor cause a shift in the reading frame frameshiftboth of which can significantly alter the gene product.
Insertions can be reversed by excision of the transposable element. Deletions remove one or more nucleotides from the DNA.
Like insertions, these mutations can alter the reading frame of the gene. In general, they are irreversible: Though exactly the same sequence might in theory be restored by an insertion, transposable elements able to revert a very short deletion say 1—2 bases in any location either are highly unlikely to exist or do not exist at all.
Substitution mutationsoften caused by chemicals or malfunction of DNA replication, exchange a single nucleotide for another. A transition can be caused by nitrous acid, base mis-pairing, or mutagenic base analogs such as BrdU.
An example of a transversion is the conversion of adenine A into a cytosine C. A point mutation are modifications of single base pairs of DNA or other small base pairs within a gene.
A point mutation can be reversed by another point mutation, in which the nucleotide is changed back to its original state true reversion or by second-site reversion a complementary mutation elsewhere that results in regained gene functionality.
As discussed belowpoint mutations that occur within the protein coding region of a gene may be classified as synonymous or nonsynonymous substitutionsthe latter of which in turn can be divided into missense or nonsense mutations.Newly emerging technology involving DNA continues to enhance the efforts of law enforcement.
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